Here, we will proceed to explain the standard procedure suitable for dividing simple or complex multi-digit numbers.
It breaks down a division problem into a series of easier steps. It enables divisions involving arbitrarily large numbers to be performed by following this series of simple steps.
It is one of the most essential skills to be learnt in elementary math.
This standard procedure is called Long Division.
Terms involoved in Long Division : Dividend, Divisor, Quotient and Remainder
Suppose I ask you to find 21 ÷ 4.
You recall 4 times table and realise that there is no number which when multiplied by 4 gives 21.
Then, how to find 21 ÷ 4 ?
We will try to find a number which when multiplied gives a value near to 21.
From 4 times table, we know 4 x 5 = 20 and 20 is near 21.
The difference of 21 and 20 = 1 is called the Remainder when 21 is divided by 4.
21 is called Dividend and 4 is called Divisor and 5 is called the Quotient.
The Remainder (= 1) is less than the Divisor ( = 4).
The number being divided is called the Dividend. The number that divides is called the Divisor. The number got after division is called the Quotient. The number that remains undivided is called the Remainder. The Remainder should always be less than the Divisor.
The process is shown below in vertical presentation
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