You know, a cat has four legs. Suppose there are 3 cats. How many legs altogether ?

The answer is 4 + 4 + 4. Using our knowledge of Addition, we can find this repeated addition as 4 + 4 + 4 = 12 or 3 times 4 is 12 or 3 x 4 = 12.

The above two examples are examples of Multiplication as repeated addition.

Let us see one more example.

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Do you know an octopus which lives in sea ? How many legs does it have ? It has 8 legs. How many legs altogether 4 octopuses have ?

The legs they have is 8 + 8 + 8 + 8. Using our knowledge of Addition, we can find this repeated addition as 8 + 8 + 8 + 8 = 32 or 4 times 8 is 32 or 4 x 8 = 32.

In all these three examples, we have seen repeated addition of a number. Instead of writing the number and the + symbol repeatedly, we are counting how many times the number is added and writing it as that count x the number.

We say that the number is multiplied by the count and the process is called mutiplication.

The symbol for multiplication is 'x'.

Thus, multiplication is nothing but the repeated addition.

Exercise 1A : Multiplication as repeated addition

Fill in the blanks.

3 + 3 + 3 + 3 + 3 = --- x --- = ---

5 + 5 + 5 + 5 + 5 + 5 + 5 + 5 = --- x --- = ---

7 + 7 + 7 + 7 + 7 + 7 + 7 = --- x --- = ---

12 + 12 + 12 + 12 = --- x --- = ---

20 + 20 + 20 + 20 + 20 + 20 = --- x ---- = ---

6 x 4 is --- times --- or --- + --- + --- + --- + --- + --- = ---

3 x 8 is --- times --- or --- + --- + --- = ---

5 x 9 is --- times --- or --- + --- + --- + --- + --- = ---

2 x 30 is --- times --- or --- + --- = ---

4 x 15 is --- times --- or --- + --- + --- + --- = ---

For Answers see at the end of the page.

Exercise 1B : Word problems in Multiplication as repeated addition

In answering these word problems, give your answer using '+' symbol and 'x' symbol before arriving at the answer number.

A spider has 8 legs. How many legs altogether 5 spiders have ?

A flower bed has 6 rows and each row has 5 flowers. How many flowers are there in the bed ?

In an egg tray, there are 4 rows and each row has 3 eggs. How many eggs are there in the tray ?

In a bottle case, there are 6 rows and each row has 4 bottles. How many bottles are there in the case ?

There are 7 desks in a class room and each desk has 6 legs. What is the total number of the legs of the desks ?

There are 3 bunches of flowers and each bunch has 10 flowers. How many flowers are there ?

Ther are 9 biscuits in a pack. How many biscuits are there in 4 packs ?

A parcel has 7 items. How many items are there in 8 parcels ?

There are 4 rows of students and each row has 11 students. How many students are there ?

A book shelf has 5 rows and each row has 13 books. How many books are there in the shelf ?

For Answers see at the end of the page.

Further Topics on Multiplication

The following Links take you to different topics of Multiplication.

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Answers to Exercises

Answers to Exercise 1A : Multiplication as repeated addition

5 x 3 = 15

8 x 5 = 40

7 x 7 = 49

4 x 12 = 48

6 x 20 = 120

6 times 4 or 4 + 4 + 4 + 4 + 4 + 4 = 24

3 times 8 or 8 + 8 + 8 = 24

5 times 9 or 9 + 9 + 9 + 9 + 9 = 45

2 times 30 or 30 + 30 = 60

4 times 15 or 15 + 15 + 15 + 15 = 60

Answers to Exercise 1B : Word problems in Multiplication as repeated addition